University of Virginia School of Law International Human Rights Law Clinic

November 2022

Originally published

Posted to KLJP on
December 1, 2022

This report addresses the role of U.S.-based social media companies in the digital occupation of Indian-Administered Jammu and Kashmir (IAJK). The first and second portions of this report provides background information on India’s digital authoritarianism and digital occupation of IAJK and the role of social media companies in aiding and abetting human rights violations in IAJK, as well as providing context for the role these same companies play in other countries. The third part of this report analyzes the legal obligations and oversight mechanisms to which these companies are subject. The fourth and final part of this report enumerates certain action items that human rights defenders and advocates might pursue to seek accountability for these companies’ violations and protect the freedom of expression of their users.

Topics: the rise of digital authoritarianism in IAJK and abroad, social media platforms violations in IAJK that contribute to digital authoritarianism, applicable legal obligations and responsibilities of the state and social media corporations, actions items and methods for human rights defenders

Terms: digital authoritarianism, suppression of free expression, hate speech, internet shutdowns, communications blackouts, surveillance, corporate complicity in human rights violations, Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA), Jammu and Kashmi Public Safety Act (PSA)

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