In January 2023, Indian authorities continued to commit grave human rights violations in IAK. Indian forces killed at least two people and involuntarily disappeared another. Indian forces continued to collectively punish Kashmiris, including through raiding the homes of dissidents and harassing their families, expropriating and demolishing homes and property, restricting people’s right to movement and imposing communications and internet shutdowns. Additionally, the Jammu & Kashmir administration continued to systematically expropriate Kashmiris’ homes, commercial property, fields, orchards and other real property-related without due process or compensation. The administration continued to develop its extensive data collection and surveillance apparatus in IAK.