The already dire humanitarian and human rights situation in IAK has substantially deteriorated since August 4, 2019 when Indian authorities imposed new, violative laws and policies on IAK – illegalities predicated on earlier illegalities condemned by the UN Security Council. At that time, the Indian government further intensified its militarized repression in IAK, escalated collective punishment and mass illegal imprisonment of dissenters, and consolidated its dominance over the local population while totally cutting Kashmiris off from the international community. Indian authorities have subsequently implemented policies facilitating and incentivizing forced demographic change in the region in favor of non-local Hindus, cultural erasure, and the economic and social disempowerment of IAK’s Muslims, Kashmiri Muslims in particular, in their homeland. Other grave human rights violations remain ongoing. Indian authorities have increasingly targeted Kashmiri human rights defenders and other dissenters – including journalists, scholars, lawyers and political activists – for repression through legal restrictions on their work, raids of their homes and places of employment, arbitrary arrests and detentions under counter-terror laws, and physical abuse.